Sustainable Maritime Interiors - 2022 Report

89 Regulatory frameworks have a vital role to play in enabling good practice. The European Commission notes that: “While up to 80 per cent of products’ environmental impacts are determined at the design phase, the linear pattern of ‘take-make-use-dispose’ does not provide producers with sufficient incentives to make their products more circular.” Global standards are needed to tackle the problem of products that are not designed for easy repair or reuse – or even for more than single use. Circular design Design is crucial to the achievement of a circular economy, as it is at the design stage that decisions are made that can eliminate waste and pollution. Also, by designing for longevity, it is possible to keep products and materials in use for longer. These two factors then enable the third pillar of circular business, which is the regeneration of natural systems. Carbon emissions from operations have long been the main focus of concern and regulation in shipping. However, the circular economy casts a spotlight on the significant carbon emissions from the construction of ships. These are embodied emissions that stem from the production, procurement and use of materials and components. Of particular interest for designers are the part of these embodied emissions related to maintenance, repair, refurbishment and replacement of items. The evolution of shipping to be more environmentally friendly from an operational perspective (including use of low-emission fuels and renewables) means that the big future wins from a sustainability perspective will be in other areas such as the materials used onboard. This is where a circular approach can pay dividends, enabling organisations to achieve their SDG targets and future-proof their activities. The implications of this shift for design, production and use of products are profound. For designers in particular, this means focusing on ways to eliminate waste and pollution over the life cycle of products, since the design determines in large part the environmental impact of the product or installation over its entire life cycle. Circular economy business models • Replacing traditional material inputs derived from virgin resources with bio-based, renewable, or recovered materials • Recycling waste into secondary raw materials, which reduces the extraction and processing of virgin natural resources • Extending the use period of existing products, which reduces waste generation • Facilitating the sharing of under-utilised products, leading to less demand for new products and their embedded raw materials • Marketing services rather than products, improving incentives for green product design and more efficient product use. Source: OECD, Business Models for the Circular Economy